Increased blood pressure, hypertension, is a disease of modern times, and is increasingly associated with stress, lack of sleep, obesity, salty foods, certain drugs, smoking and increased alcohol consumption. Namely, according to certain doctors, in more than 90% of cases with high blood pressure, the exact cause of the disease is unknown, and in less than 10%, increased pressure results from other diseases, such as kidney disease, heart damage and thyroid disorders.
The optimal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. Blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg in subjects older than 18 years who do not take any medication is considered increased, the value below 130/85 mmHg is considered normal, while 130-139 with 85-89 mmHg is a condition of normal pressure. Doctors explain that hypertension is also called a “silent killer” given that characteristic problems are often absent. Some of the discrete symptoms are headache, mild urge to vomit, dizziness, fatigue, chest pressure, strong or irregular heartbeat, which most often the ill person thinks these symptoms are fatigue. Once the elevated blood pressure value has been established, it is necessary to investigate whether there is asymptomatic organ damage, as increased blood pressure affects the development of muscle diseases, infarction, stroke, kidney damage, and atherosclerosis, that is, clogging blood vessels.
In order to diagnose high blood pressure, it is very important to control it outside of the practice, that is, at home. It is proper to measure the pressure in a sitting position, the feet leaning on the floor, after three to five minutes sitting. Before measuring, you should not have physical activity for half an hour, and you also do not have to smoke and drink coffee. It is measured at least twice, and the hand is necessary to place it on a chair, at the height of the heart. If you measure on both hands, the higher value is recorded.
How is hypertension treated?
Increased blood pressure can be successfully treated. But, unfortunately, many people who suffer from this disease are not completely aware of their problem, so only one in four patients is properly treated. The first step in the treatment is the change in the style of life. It is recommended to reduce salt intake to 5-6 grams per day, to increase the consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products with a reduced percentage of fat, and also to reduce the intake of alcohol. Some patients will need medication for years. The choice of drugs is made by the doctor based on the condition of the patient, the type of hypertension and other diseases.
Prevention of high blood pressure in 11 steps
In order to reduce the risk of hypertension, try to do these things:
- Eat at least two to three servings of dairy products that contain a lower level of fat
- Eat eight to ten servings of fruit a day
- Stop smoking
- Limit alcohol intake
- Limit salt intake
- Limit the intake of delicatessen products
- Avoid products that contain MSG additive (sodium glutamate)
- Weight loss if you have excess pounds
- Be physically active
- Maintain ingestion of appropriate amounts of calcium, magnesium and potassium
- Reduce the intake of fat
The frequency of this disease grows, depending on age in both sexes. Men have a higher blood pressure level of up to 60 years, when that difference is lost, with women at an older age having a higher incidence of increased blood pressure. In both sexes over the age of 60, a gradual increase in systolic pressure was observed, with a gradual decrease in the value of diastolic pressure.