Vitamin K participates as a coenzyme in the carboxylation of glutamic acid in the precursors of the coagulation factors. In fact they have the ability to bind the calcium ions and participate in blood clotting. Deficiency of vitamin K of adults is usually a consequence of poor absorption in the small intestine (obstructive jaundice, pancreatic insufficiency, poor absorption syndrome).
The reasons for the lack of vitamin K are: Inadequate food intake, disorder of intestinal bacterial synthesis (long-term use of antibiotics), and loss of vitamin K stocks in the liver due to hepatocellular damage. A special cause is excessive and uncontrolled oral anticoagulants.
Clinical manifestations of lack of vitamin K are: Bleeding in the form of subcutaneous hematomas, bleeding in the muscles, as well as from the mucous membrane, gastrointestinal and urogenital system.
The lack of vitamin K is also called hypovitaminosis of K, and the symptoms may be: Bleeding, spotting bleeding (petechiae), hematomas, abdominal pain, calcification of the soft tissue (especially the heart valves), severe menstrual bleeding, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, haematuria (blood in urine), nose bleeding, gums, anemia, osteopenia, osteoporosis, fractures and hypercalciuria.
Congenital defects associated with K’s hypervitaminosis
In infants still in the stomach, lack of vitamin K can occur in the underdevelopment of the nose, mouth and face of the face, microcephaly, mental retardation, hypertension, cardiac anomalies, learning difficulties, various fingers deformities, and slow growth .
Hypervitaminosis due to lack of vitamin K is, as a rule, quite rare on adult individuals because it is present in various foods, and some intestinal bacteria synthesize in the body.
Vitamin K in foods
To provide your body with enough vitamin K, it is necessary to introduce the following products into your diet: Cabbage, cauliflower, prokle, spinach, nettle, Indian alfalfa, leafy and chestnut leaf, pine needles, leafy green vegetables , tomato, peas, soy, carrot, potato, pork liver (and fat obtained from it), vegetable oils (semi-unsaturated oils), fish oil, cow’s milk, yogurt, cheese, egg yolk, algae.